Identifying the source

When adding a resource to your research material you are required to indicate one of three sources: 

  • Hardcopy (softcover or hardcover): for physical copies of resources (e.g., from a library)
  • Online: for resources found on the internet
  • Database (ie., downloaded): for resources found in a database

The citation and reference templates require this data to ensure that the citation is accurate (e.g., adding the Doi if it is available).


Source = Hardcopy


Data required:

  • Library or archive name
  • Location of library or archive
  • Call number (bookshelf location)
  • Accession number (as issued by the library or archive)

This data is, essentially, optional, and rarely used with referencing purposes. However, it is always advisable to add the data if you have ift so you can find the item again.

Source = Online



Data required:

  • Website name
  • URL (mandatory, add the full address starting with http://)
  • Website owner
  • Digital Object Identifier (DOI); (see Database)

This data is generally optional, except the URL, but can be used for some style guides. It also provides some handy reference data to enable recall of the item.

Source = Database


Data required:

  • Database name (mandatory)
  • Provider
  • Digital Object Identifier (DOI); also required for Online
  • Database Identifier (mandatory, i.e., item number)

The name of the database and the identifier are, essentially, mandatory when using this source. The additional data can be useful for finding the item at a later date



  1. Always add as much data as you can 

  2. Hardcopy is the default source, but you can add data to all three  if you desire. Items found online can also be added as 'hardcopy', especially if you have the full text.


 See Also

  • Accurate referencing built-in
  • Adding a resource
  • Inserting a citation
  • Primary templates
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